Ukrainian Association of Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry
on clinical laboratory research
of DENTALEN toothpaste efficiency
To study influence of Dentalen toothpaste on a condition of oral health, hard tooth tissues, tissues of parodontic complex and oral mucous membrane.
1. To study hygienic (cleaning) properties of DENTALEN toothpaste.
2. To study influence of DENTALEN toothpaste on parodontium tissues.
3. To study antibacterial effect of DENTALEN toothpaste on combined microflora of supragingival and subgingival dental plaque.
4. To perform electronic-microscopic examination of DENTALEN toothpaste influence on hard tooth tissues.
Research object: for the purposes of the tasks assigned solution we have examined 50 patients at the age of 18-40 years old.
All patients were divided into two groups:
Basic group (BG) – 25 people, for the purposes of personal oral hygiene (POH) used DENTALEN toothpaste and toothbrush of Media type.
Control group (CG) – 25 people, for the purposes of POH used Lacalut Alpin toothpaste and the same toothbrush.
Research methods: all patients were examined under the same scheme of clinical and index researches, recommended by the WHO.
Clinical research methods:
1. Evaluation of dental health
2. Determination of oral hygiene index-simplified of Green-Vermillion as to dental plaque (OHI-S)
3. Determination of parodontium tissues state:
• Clinical methods – detection of gingival edema, hemorrhage and hyperemia
• Index evaluation of parodontium tissues state – PMA index
4. Each patient filled in questionnaire for the purposes of subjunctive estimation of DENTALEN toothpaste properties (attached)
Laboratory research methods:
1. Material for the purposes of microbiological research was collected by means of a tampon which was at once submerged into a test tube with transport medium Amies (transport medium w / Charcoal (HIMEDIA, India) and transported into a laboratory.
2. Electronic microscopic research was performed at 10 permanent teeth, removed, under a patient's consent, on orthodontic or orthopedic indications.
All patients during the first visit were taught a personal oral hygiene and its control (this allowed to achieve approximately the same condition of POH and the same level of personal hygiene knowledge). Clinical examination and determination of indices were performed during the first visit and repeatedly in 2 weeks and 1 month.
During the initial examination 41 patients (82%) were diagnosed parodontium pathologies, namely, chronic catarrhal gingivitis, generalized periodontitis of the initial and first degree and 9 (18%) patients were diagnosed oral mucous membrane (OMM) pathologies.
Changes of patients' hygienic oral condition in basic and control groups are demonstrated on the Fig.1. During the first examination all patients' oral hygiene condition was approximately the same and within the "unsatisfactory" evaluation range of hygiene, it made up 1.84 and 1.76 points, correspondingly. In two weeks after the medicated products application the index improved 3 times almost, in the basic and control groups. Upon 1 month hygiene index made up 0.62 points in the basic group and 0.58 in the control one, which is 1.22 and 1.18 points better than during the initial examination. In both groups hygiene index within the course of the whole research remained within the limits of "good" evaluation range. At the end of the 2nd month the hygiene condition made up 0.62 and 0.68 points, correspondingly, which is almost 3 times better than upon the initial examination. Thus, toothpastes under examination has almost the same high cleaning properties, at this, DENTALEN toothpaste RDA index is lower that of Lacalut Alpin toothpaste.
Parodontic tissues condition is in a direct correlation relation to oral hygiene. Before the research all patients' index of PMA inflammation corresponded to the "gingivitis of the average degree", Fig.2. Upon the first month of toothpastes application its degree decreased at all patients twice and, accordingly, transferred to gingivitis of the "light degree". Within the research stages, in the basic as well as in the control groups, clinical gums condition was stable and PMA index level made up 18.1%, which is 5% better than in the control group (22.43%).
During microbiological research at all patients representatives of resident (constant) and transitory (temporal, short-lived) microflora were detected and identified. At all patients examined microorganisms were extracted as a part of associations, at 24.3% of patients they consisted of the representatives of aerobic, anaerobic and fungal microflora, and at 75.7% of patients – aerobic and anaerobic. In average, each patient had associations consisting of 7-9 species of microorganisms.
Species composition of microflora at all patients is presented.
According to the Table 1 optionally anaerobic oral Streptococci (S. salivarius, S. sangius, S. mitis, S. mutans) prevailed at the patients. Lactic acid bacilli of Lactobacillus spp. were plated not so often. Yeast-like fungi (Candida spp.) were detected in insignificant amount, as well as enterococci (E. faecium), representatives of Enterobacteriaceae family (20.0%) and pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (30.0%).
For the purposes of determination of DENTALEN toothpaste antibacterial effect, as to the detected microorganisms' strains, we have performed bacterial and fungal microflora's sensitivity determination in vitro, results of which are presented .
For the purposes of study of DENTALEN toothpaste nature of influence on hard tooth tissues a research was carried out by means of scanning electronic microscopy, with application of raster electron microscope Superprobe-733 of Jeol Company, Japan. Electronic microscopic examination was performed for 10 permanent teeth removed on orthodontic or orthopedic indications.
Evaluation of DENTALEN toothpaste effectiveness (questionnaire is attached)
According to the Table above all patients, participated in the clinical research, gave a positive estimation to DENTALEN toothpaste, general impression from the toothpaste was estimated as excellent one by 76% patients. About 80 % of patients estimated good cleaning, deodorizing and refreshing properties. Any patient felt oral mucous membrane irritation. 64% of those interviewed noted, after teeth cleaning, that a film on teeth is formed, which preserves food taste.
It should be noted that 56% of patients answered that they would certainly apply DENTALEN toothpaste for the purposes of personal oral hygiene.
According to the Table above all patients, participated in the clinical research, gave a positive estimation to DENTALEN toothpaste, general impression from the toothpaste was estimated as good one by 80% patients. About 80 % of patients estimated good cleaning, deodorizing and refreshing properties. Any patient felt oral mucous membrane irritation.
DENTALEN toothpaste has high hygienic (cleaning) action, resulting in qualitative removal of dental plaque (in combination with qualitative toothbrush). Upon application of toothpaste patients' oral hygiene condition was improved approximately 3 times and remained stable within 2 months.
DENTALEN toothpaste high parodontium protection effect was established, which correlated with indices of oral hygiene condition.
Dentalen toothpaste has antibacterial effect on combined microflora of supragingival and subgingival dental plaque, extracted during examination.
Electronic microscopic examination proved that Dentalen toothpaste has uniform fine-crystalline structure, doesn't damage hard tooth tissues and forms a protective film on tooth surface.
According to the patients' questionnaire results DENTALEN toothpaste has good organoleptic properties and doesn't irritate oral mucous membrane.
Ukrainian Association of Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry recommends DENTALEN toothpaste as effective medicated product for personal oral hygiene and in a combination therapy of parodontium and oral mucous membrane pathologies.